Define drain-current conditions when calculating power for multi-core SoCs

by Arun Mishra, freescale Semiconductor , TechOnline India - January 11, 2012

Here we discuss factors to be considered when calculating the power numbers of such SoCs. If not decided judiciously , it may lead to inaccurate power numbers in the product datasheet, causing lost sales or customer dissatisfaction.

Introduction

The automotive electronics meant for safety applications are increasingly implementing multi-CPU architectures with on-chip redundancy to safeguard applications using minimal software overhead. On one hand, having on-chip redundancy is good for safety measures, but on the other hand it has attached baggage like higher die-area, higher noise, higher power consumption, etc.

This article discusses the factors that should be considered when calculating the power numbers of such SoCs. These factors if not decided judiciously may lead to inaccurate power numbers in the product datasheet, which could result in lost sales or customer dissatisfaction.

Power consumption of a device under typical run conditions is one of the important parameters specified on a datasheet. In the case of SoCs, the power consumption number depends on multiple factors like frequency of operation, modules enabled during the operation, CPU and DMA (direct memory access) operations with cache enabled/disabled, etc. For multi-CPU (multi-core) SoCs, another factor is whether the CPUs are working in lock-step or a decoupled parallel mode.

This feature discusses the various factors considered to define the typical Run-Idd (drain current) conditions (TRC) for the power measurement. This is a very important step before proceeding to make measurements and justify the power numbers on the datasheet. The analysis presented here is for a dual-CPU SoC, but is well applicable to all multi-CPU SoCs.

Overview of dual-CPU architecture

Figure 1 below shows the architecture of a typical dual-CPU SoC. The blocks in blue implement on-chip redundancy which we call Sphere of Replication (SoR). Each SoR contains identical CPUs (e200z4), eDMA controllers, interrupt controllers, crossbar bus systems, system timers, software watchdog timers, etc.

 

 

The blocks in pink are redundancy checkers (RC), which check the outputs from both the SoR and signals fault to FCCU (fault control and collection unit) in case of a mismatch. The blocks in yellow are the modules accessible by both of the CPUs.

Dual-CPU SoCs may broadly operate in two modes:

Lock Step Mode (LSM): CPUs in both the SoRs execute the same instruction cycle by cycle and any differences between the outputs of the CPUs indicates a fault and triggers a reaction to prevent propagation of the fault and to put the microcontroller into a fail-safe mode.

Decoupled Parallel Mode (DPM): In this mode, each CPU runs independently. This mode of operation puts the chip into a symmetric multi-CPU processor mode with both processors having individual control of their peripherals. DPM increased performance can be estimated as about 1.6 times the performance of the LSM operation at the same frequency.

 

Defining typical run conditions for current consumption

As discussed earlier, defining typical Run-Idd conditions (TRC) is the first and foremost step before proceeding to measure the power requirements of a SoC. Bear in mind that customers are interested in knowing the worst-case power requirements of the device, but still realistic enough to match closely with the most probable operation of their application.

For the dual-CPU SoC under consideration, there were various discussions held with systems, applications, and design teams. Some prototype experiments were conducted on silicon to accurately define the TRCs. The factors which were found to have direct influence on the Run-Idd numbers are:

   1) LSM or DPM mode of operation: Selection of SoC mode of operation is mainly dependent on the customer use-case scenario. But for the worst case power consumption, because LSM mode has both CPUs executing instructions simultaneously all the time, the maximum core activity occurs in LSM mode and hence is TRC1 for the worst-case power measurement.

   2) Frequency of operation: The CPUs in SoC under consideration work at a maximum frequency of 180 MHz with the rest of the system operating at 90 MHz. Experiments done on real silicon showed that the current numbers are directly proportional to the frequency of operation. The graph of Figure 2 below depicts the dependency of core and I/O current on the CPU operating frequency.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2 Power vs. operating frequency

 

So it was decided to take current measurements at the highest frequency of operation, i.e. 180 MHz. This is TRC2.

   3) Cache enabled operation: The enabling of the instruction and data cache allows faster CPU execution owing to lesser memory access time, which in turn should cause higher current consumption on the core voltage. This was established during our prototype experiments and hence is TRC3.

   4) CPU execution time vs. peripheral execution time: For SoCs, the total execution time is divided between CPU execution time and peripheral execution time. Experiments done on real silicon showed that for a given condition, power consumption on core voltage is directly proportional to the CPU execution time, i.e. the higher the CPU execution time, the higher the core current consumption.

A quick look at the graph shown in Figure 3 provides a clear picture of this dependency. 

 

    

 

Figure 3 Power vs. CPU execution time

 

To obtain the optimum numbers matching with typical customer use cases, we decided to keep the CPU-to-peripheral execution- time ratio as 80:20. This is TRC4.

   5) Miscellaneous Factors: There are many other factors which are SoC specific that can have considerable effect on the current consumption. For example, for the SoC under analysis, the CPUs implement complex signal-processing and FFT (fast Fourier transform) instructions. The execution of these instructions by a CPU has a direct impact on the core current consumption. For other SoCs, such factors having direct impact on the core current have to be identified and that becomes the TRC5.

Once the previous five run conditions were identified, a multi-module Run-Idd test case was developed. The SoC was configured in LSM mode with CPUs operating at 180 MHz with I/D-cache enabled, executing complex FFT code with the signal-processing engine enabled, and checkerboard patterns on complete SRAM. The various modules enabled in the Run-Idd test case were ADC, eDMA, FEC, external bus interface (EBI), LinFLEX, watchdog timers, system timers, DDR controller, FlexCAN and DSPI. After performing the required system and module initializations, all of these modules and the CPU were configured to execute respective data transfers continuously in an infinite loop.

All the typical Run-Idd conditions discussed above should be clearly mentioned in the datasheet as shown with a line entry in Figure 4 here:

 

 

Figure 4 Power parameter in a typical datasheet

 

Power measurement conditions and setupPublishing the datasheet with the final current numbers requires a thorough analysis by executing the defined Run-Idd scenario on SoC across process, voltage, and temperature. Generally, there are three samples selected each from slow, fast, and typical corner lots, two voltage conditions (nominal and maximum operating voltages, 3v3 and 3v6), and three temperature conditions (-40, 25, 125C).

The following are some of important considerations to be considered to reduce the impact of setup related issues affecting the power numbers.

• When SoC is configured to operate in external regulation mode, make sure that a proper compensation mechanism is put in place to ensure that the voltage drop caused by board trace impedances is compensated, and the final voltages reaching the supply pins are as desired for SoC operation. For internal regulation mode, the compensation is controlled by the internal regulator, but the drop should be manually compensated for the non-regulated supplies.

• The power consumption calculation for a device is based on the formula:
Total Power = I1 * V1 + I2 * V2 + I3 * V3 + …..
          Where I1 is the current measured on voltage V1, I2 is the current measured on voltage V2, and so on.Therefore, connect an ammeter of the desired range on every supply pin of the SoC. By desired specifications, it is meant that if a supply pin shows a current of the order of µA, make sure that the range of the ammeter is properly selected to provide a realistic measurement. 

• One should make sure that the power consumption occurring due to external board components is ruled out during the power measurement for SoC. This can otherwise give false power numbers for datasheet. In particular, current on VDD_IO supply is affected due to external board consumption.

 

Effect of leakage current on power numbers

One of the major challenges which one may face during the power measurement exercise is related to the leakage numbers measured on silicon across process and temperature.

This is seen when, for a given corner lot sample at the same voltage, the current numbers vary largely with temperature due to leakage. In our case, we observed that at -40C, the core current was ~550 mA and it shot to ~1A at 125C. Of course, the Run-Idd activity would not cause the current to shoot up by twice from -40 to 125C. Therefore, it is important to know the expected leakage numbers for each corner lots samples under measurement. This can be done by simply holding the part in reset and measuring the current on each supply pin across temperature.

The graph of Figure 5 below shows the relation between leakage and Run-Idd numbers on a particular supply pin at 25C and 125C.

 

 

 

Figure 5 Leakage impact on power number

 

 

Conclusion

As with the other parameters in the datasheet, publishing maximum power numbers requires thorough background work, which we call here, "defining the typical Run-Idd conditions." This is an important activity to complete before starting the measurements. This feature discussed the various Run-Idd conditions, the details about measurement setup, and the effect of leakage current on the power numbers. Having the power numbers calculated with all the considerations discussed in this paper allows realistic values that can be provided for customers.

References

All the figures and results discussed in this paper are carried on a Freescale PowerPC based dual-core SoC meant for automotive safety applications. This device is yet to be released in the market, therefore the part number is not available.
 

About the Author:

Arun Mishra is lead design engineer at Freescale Semiconductor.

 

Article Courtesy: Automotive DesignLine

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