In most cases the server processor only needs to inspect and process a small portion of the data frame (header or header fields), or even make automatic decisions (i.e., send compressed packets to decompress engine).
Due to the current nature of I/O traffic, all frame data is sent to the processor(s), resulting in the following:
- Increase traffic via the platform hub bus interface (PCIe or HT)
- Increase traffic towards the processor host memory (in NUMA architecture) or towards the host shared memory (in non-NUMA architecture)
- Increase cache pollution caused by redundant data loaded to the processor cache
- Increase processing latency as more data is written to the host memory which in turn, becomes a bottleneck
- Increase power consumption due to increased access to the host memory, more traffic on local bus, more processing on processors, etc.
In recent years, these phenomena have worsened due to the introduction of multi-core/multi-processor environments and the increase in I/O BW from networks and storage--currently with network ports of 10Gb/s, and 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s in the future.
The overall effect is that most users discovered that their I/O performance did not scale well after moving from a single processor single core to a multi-processor multi-core system. Moreover, they found it difficult to scale their system to process and handle traffic in the range of 10Gb/s and higher.
To solve the problems described herein, we recommend improving platform architecture, making it the base for future chipsets. The improved architecture is based on content aware routing of incoming traffic. As part of our solution, we will first address the previous and current generations of platform architecture.
Previous generation chipsets
In the past, chipsets were aimed at supporting three main functions:
- Interface to external memory (SDRAM, DDR)
- Interface to graphic card
- Bridge to local bus (PCI, PCI express) used to connect to various peripherals (i.e., networking and storage)
Figure 1 below describes initial platform architecture. A processor connected to a chipset (generally based on two devices--The Northbridge (Memory Controller Hub (MCH), and The Southbridge, (I/O Controller Hub (ICH)). The chipset contains an integral memory controller, graphic interface, and a bridge to the platform's local bus and peripheral interfaces.
In recent years, we have witnessed a migration towards the NUMA architecture (Non-Uniform Memory Architecture), where a memory controller becomes part of the processor. This is carried out to solve shared memory bottleneck problems that arise due to the increase in the number of cores.
Additional trends include:
- Integrating the graphic core as part of the processor
- Allowing direct connection to the processor (i.e., using HyperTransport in AMD processors)
Based on these trends, only bridge functionality exists in the chipset.
In parallel, the amount of traffic now handled by some interfaces (LAN or SAN) has increased dramatically (from 1G to 10G), and as noted above, the current trend is to move towards multi-processor multi-core environments.
These trends have led to the need to define new chipset architecture that will handle not only data transfer, but also handle more complex tasks, such as load balancing, higher levels of traffic classification, persistency, bandwidth management, and other tasks that will result in enhanced performance and improved I/O scaling.
New Chipset Architecture
A new chipset architecture, defined below, effectively handle the challenges described.
The new chipset is detailed in Figure 3.
The new chipset includes the following:
- Switch fabric--Previously, incoming traffic was first sent to the host memory, processed by the host processor(s) and then (if required), sent back to other I/O ports. Recommended is a different approach: transfer "decision" elements to the chipset (via programming), so it will be able to transfer traffic that does not require any processing or traffic that needs external processing (decryption or decompression) prior to host processing to the relevant port. For this reason, we require a switch fabric in the chipset that will allow such forwarding between all ports.
- Classification engines and action engines--"Smart" classification that enables a better understanding of the traffic's nature in fine grain resolution (i.e., per packet or per flow base). This allows improved and more accurate traffic management and decisions. Further, it results in rich sets of decisions that will not only include filter/direct decisions, but also the option to send traffic to another port, plus better granularity about the specific destination core and the portion of data needed to be sent (all packets, headers, and descriptors). This achieves improved destination core granularity and superior data transfer). Action engines must carry out various classification decisions, including filtering traffic, forwarding traffic to its destination, and modifying packet fields (add, remove, or modify various fields). In addition, action engines are used to offload tasks for outgoing traffic (i.e., checksum, time stamping).
- DMA engine--The DMA engine is used to handle traffic sent to the various processors and cores. Physical functions or DMA channels per core with different programmable parameters (i.e., priority, discard policy, interrupt policy, etc.), allow flexibility and QoS. Descriptor-based DMA enables sending as part of the descriptor information on incoming traffic extracted during classification, and reduces processing time (if only the descriptor is sent to the host memory, it saves I/O and memory traffic).
- Memory interface--Adding physical memory to store traffic that does not require further processing by the host processor saves I/O and host memory BW. The processor should only receive the traffic parameters (i.e., from the descriptor or header) and send direction decisions to the chipset. This memory is used to handle new problems that arise from NUMA architecture where traffic, required processing or not, is sent to the host memory.
In order to perform content aware routing on incoming traffic, one of the main components is to add a "smart" classification engine per I/O interface.
Current I/O cards (i.e., network cards) perform simple classification (L2 MAC, VLAN, or RSS hash function), however, classification is limited and decisions based on classification results are mainly to drop (filter) or forward the packet.
"Smart" classification should provide the following enhancements:
Implementing classifiers to support higher BW and PPS rates is a challenge, and working with different types of classifiers is a difficult task. Today, however, there is a trend towards Converged Network Adapters, (CNAs), that support both data networking (TCP/IP) and storage networking (FC) traffic on a single I/O adapter, reducing the number of classifiers required.
The switch fabric should provide the following:
- Allow any-to-any traffic in parallel
- Transfers should be non-blocking
- Inter-connect mechanism should be low latency and easy to implement
- Multiple queues to support QoS (i.e., allow bypass of urgent traffic). Each queue should include input and/or output memory buffers to compensate bursts and allow smooth traffic flow
- High speed and high BW
The DMA engine is used to handle the traffic to/from the host processor(s)/core(s).
The DMA engine should implement the following:
- Descriptor-based DMA to provide easy and improved control of data buffer, and allow insert traffic information to ease processing and (optionally) reduce traffic to the host and host memory
- Multi-buffer should support sending traffic segment (i.e., header) to one memory location and remaining traffic (i.e., payload) to other another location
- Multi-channel should be supported with a minimum requirement of one channel per existing core
- Each channel should be independent from one another
- Each channel should be programmable and allow for dynamic changes
External memory is used to store data buffers that are not required to send to the host memory for further processing. External memory should be mapped as part of the processor's physical memory (i.e., as part of the PCI memory I/O addresses space). The chipset should include mechanisms to synchronize the redirection commands derived from the processor with the stored data.
Other issues--interrupt mechanism
Since the problem is a platform problem, other issues should also be considered, One major issue is the interrupt mechanism. The chipset should be able to send interrupt messages to specific cores. It should also be able to send interrupts per a (programmable) amount of traffic (i.e., once per 100 Ethernet packets) or per amount of time to reduce the amount of interrupts in the system. Current MSI-X mechanism enables per core interrupt, while the coalescing mechanism (per packet, per time) allows the requirement to reduce the number of interrupts.
In recent years, we have seen new technologies and solutions that aim to solve specific problems in the platform hub (chipset). These solutions include multiple DMA channels to support the multi-queue environment, MSI-X interrupts that allow per core interrupts, SR-IOV and MR-IOV in the PCI express arena that attempt to solve virtual function issues, platform hub switches for improved data convergence, and more.
We assume that these new technologies play an important role in improving overall performance, while a comprehensive solution is needed for the chipset. The new chipset should handle new tasks, including higher level classification, improved service quality, sophisticated routing, and per core data transfer persistency. These tasks, many of which are derived from the networking area, will allow better I/O scalability, reduce the unnecessary traffic and cache pollution, and reduce power and latency. The recommended architecture described herein provides a full solution using innovative content aware routing and a higher level of classification to address the overall platform challenge and not only one aspect of the problem.
About the Author
Yehiel Engel serves as Commex Technology chief Architect since 2006. Prior to joining Commex Technology, from 2000 to 2005, Mr Engel established and managed the ASIC group and served as ASIC director for Broadlight. From 1994 to 2000, Mr. Engel held a number of management, design and architecture related positions at Galileo (currently Marvell) , LSI logic and IBM. Mr. Engel holds a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering (cum laude) and a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering from the Technion--Israel Institute of Technology and an MBA from the Leon Recanati Graduate School of Business (cum laude). He can be reached at: email@example.com.